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独家资料 | A2经济Essay考前押题 第1波

2018-04-26

最近许多学员在学习A2经济的时候反映学的内容多,难度大,系统性差,因此不知道如何准备考试。尤其在面对分值和题数都要比AS多的Essay题目时无从下手。针对这种情况,学诚国际教育社科教研组专门为广大考生准备了几波考前押题材料(关注“学诚国际课程”公众号获取),希望能够给大家备考一定的帮助。

本期我们要讲解Labour force market theory相关题目。这部分题目属于每年的必出题,因此建议同学们一定要认真准备哦~


一、知识内容结构 


Perfect competition labour market

这部分讲述了在没有政府干预的情况下,一个自由竞争的劳动力市场当中,扮演buyer角色的firm和扮演seller角色的worker的行为,以及它们的行为如何决定出均衡工资。接下来我们以一道例题分析一下这部分内容的写法。


例1:How does economic analysis explain the level of wage rates in a perfectly competitive labour market. (12)

题目分析:题目的意思是如何使用经济原理分析在一个完全竞争的劳动力市场中的工资水平。和我们上面的讲述一致,这道题目考察了wage determination in a perfectly competitive market. 那么我们就要对整个市场的特点,市场中买卖双方的行为特点做到充分的分析。

 

写作结构:

1. Definition of the perfect competition labour market(这部分包含该市场的assumptions)

2. Demand for labour is the MRP(这里要按照以下顺序解释MRP)

  • MRP=MP x MR

  • MP is downward-sloping due to the law of diminishing return (需要解释该理论)

  • MR is a constant number which equals to the price (这里可以给出一个表格详述以上三点的关系,具体表格在下面的讲述中会给出)

3. Supply of labour

  • Use table to show that the MC is identical

4. Equilibrium is at profit maximization point MRP=MC

  • If MRP>MC continue employing

  • If MRP<MC lay off labour.

 

了解了写作结构之后我们分别具体的讲述下每个部分:


MRP Theory (demand)

1. Definition of MRP: MRP is the additional revenue obtained from a one-unit change in labour input.

2. Formula: MRPL= MP X MR

3. Assumptions under MRP theory:

  • There are lots of firms and employers, so there are not monopsonists

  • All workers are homogeneous

  • Trade union has no impact on the available labour supply

  • The output market is also perfect competitive.

  • Firms are profit-maximiser

4. Deriving the shape of MRP(推导MRP曲线的形状)

  • MP:MP refers to the additional output produced by one more unit of labour.It follows the diminishing return law which means as increasing the no. Of workers, the MP will first increase then decrease.So,for the MRP, it will also follow this trend by first increasing then decreasing.

  • MR:MR refers to the additional revenue gained from the production of one more unit of goods. It equals the price of the output.MR is always constant since no one could change the price of the product in a perfectly competitive market.

  • 列出表格根据上述规律给出数据,然后画出MRP曲线:

    640.jpg

    640 (3).jpg


Perfect Competitive labour market (supply)


接下来我们看一下市场中的labour supply部分怎么写。

1.Assumptions:There are large no. Of employers and employees, and also all the workers are homogeneous, so everyone is the wage rate taker.

2.根据以上假设我们可以推导出MFC曲线的形状:MFC refers to the additional cost of hiring one more unit of labour. MFC=△Total cost/△Quantity of labour. As wage rate is fixed, the supply of labour will be perfectly elastic.Therefore, the wage rate= MFC=AC=SL.

3.根据上面的分析可以举出数据并得到以下模型,企业面对的labour supply curve由整个市场所有企业和劳动力决定,任何企业无法自己改变wage rate:

QL

WR

TC

MFC

AC

1

5

5

5

5

2

5

10

5

5

3

5

15

5

5

4

5

20

5

5

5

5

25

5

5

640 (2).jpg


Equilibrium


Labour market当中的demand和Supply分析结束后,我们就可以分析labour market equilibrium了。

首先还是要提我们的假设:Employers are all profit-maximizers.

So they will hire to the point where MRP=MFC. This is because as MC>MRP, increase quantity of labour hired will cause a decrease in profit. As MC<MRP, increase quantity of labour hired will increase the profit. So only when MC=MRP the profit can be maximised.


最后给出均衡图像:

640 (1).jpg

好了同学们,本期的内容到此就结束了,了解了自由竞争市场当中工资决定部分的写法,那么imperfect labour market当中的wage determination又受哪些因素影响呢?政府是如何干涉labour market,以及干涉的有效性如何分析,我们会在下期的内容给出答案。

迫不及待的同学可以关注学诚国际课程微信公众号,可以提前得到答案哦。


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