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独家资料 | A-level经济Essay考前押题(第2波)


上一期里面我们介绍了perfect competitive labour market当中的wage determination问题(点击《独家资料 | 考前必看!A2经济Essay考前押题(第1波)》查看)。 本期我们要讲解的imperfect competitive labour market当中的wage determination以及government和trade union是如何干涉labour market的。


学习Alevel在这部分内容中,我们讲述imperfect market当中的wage determination以及government和trade union如何干涉imperfect labour market.我们来分析一道例题。

例2:’a government announced that it would limit the top level of pay for senior executives in private industries by imposing a maximum wage.’The trade union for transport workers decided to call a strike unless its members were awarded a higher rate of pay.’

Discuss how the economic analysis of wage determination would be changed by the announcement of the government and the decision of trade union (13)


题目提到政府会通过maximum wage来限制高级管理人员的工资,同时工会宣布要通过罢工为工人谋求更高的工资。然后让我们讨论工资的决定受到二者的什么影响。该题考察了imperfect market的wage determination和外部干涉的影响。


1. Imperfect market wage rate determination.

2. Introduction of government intervention and how it affects wage rate.

3. Introduction of trade union intervention and how it affects wage rate.

4. Evaluation includes the opinions about how those two may not be effective in changing the wage rate.


1. Wage rate determination under imperfect competitive labour market


1) Assumptions:

a. There are one factory (monoposonist) owns all business in town and tires all the employers.

b. These labours are non-homogeneous, so the employers will be the wage maker.

2) Wage rate determination

a. The monoposonist may hire workers by following -MFC=MRP rule in order to achieve profit maximisation.

b. The monoposonist is a wage maker so it faces an upward sloping supply curve, so wage rate= average labour cost= SL(Supply of labour)


c. Due to imperfect product market, the MR will decrease as quantity of output increases, so MRP will decrease more than that in perfect competitive labour market.

d. Graph:


2. Government intervention

1) Introduction:The government announcement represents the normal national minimum wage control strategy.

2) Definition of national minimum wage(NMW).

3) Analysis:For the perfect competitive labour market, the NMW will become the new wage rate, there will be less employed.



For an imperfect competitive labour market, all firms will not provide wage rate lower than the NMW as it is illegal, and neither will they provide wage rate higher than the value of the MRP since in this way the value that the worker bringing to the firm will be lower than the cost of the labour which will cause a loss in profits for the firms, the NMW will become the new MC for the firm.

So the wage rate determination method will change to get the intersection between NMW and the MRPL.



3. Trade union

1) Definition: Trade union is an organised group aiming to increase the wage rate of all members and to improve the working condition.

2) Analysis: Trade union has mainly three methods to increase the wage rate--- reduction of labour supply by industrial forces such as strikes, policies designed to increase labour demand and improving wage rate directly.

For perfectly competitive labour market(same as that in above government intervention).

For imperfect.... (same as above).

3) Evaluation:

Trade union limitation.

If plenty of working force exists, then trade union’s intervention has weak strength.

If the labour costs take the large percentage of the total cost, trade union intervention may make firms have no abnormal profit even leave the industry.


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