首页 > A-Level > 相关资讯 > A-level经济重要考点Monopsony深度分析!





monopsony不仅在labour market中经常出现,对于在product market 中的现实存在也是不能忽略的。这次我们先来看下2017年关于UK 几大supermarket的monopsony分析。题目如下:



既然是reference to ExtractA ,所以我们就不用浪费时间在extract B与C上面了,question让我们分析monopsony power 对food supplier 与consumer的影响,所以我们建立一个2*2的分析框架:


所以接下来的任务非常明了了,我们在logic chain时,可以先罗列出benefit to suppliers,benefit to consumers等等,但是这边不得不提醒大家,不仅是在monopsony中,在其他的market structure也是一样,对各方的impacts的分析都可以从firm的角度出发,比如,我们可以先分析monopsonist自身的好处。


Knowledge:monopsony power的definition,注意,monopsony power不是monopsony,而是指monopsony的定价power;

Application:Tesco等四大超市的market share,以及figure2中提到的supplier reported supermarket 违反codes of practice 的百分率;




Evaluate :costs and benefits 的相反分析既可作为evaluation。



Monopsony power is where a buyer in a market has significance in buying or bargaining power.The GCA is investigating the abuse of monopony power,with a youger poll showing 31% of tescos’ food suppliers claiming they are failing to meet the GCC.

High monopsony power of supermarkets leads to them being able to negotiate lower prices from food suppliers ,as they need to minimise their costs to engage in the aggressive price wars.However,this”aggressive price-cutting” means falling revenues for food suppliers,causing AR to fall to AR1.This along with being forced to pay for specific packaging and rising marketing costs has led to rising costs for food suppliers causing AC to increase to AC1.This has led to shirking run profit margins and therefore falling profits to just the shade area .profits will lead to reduced dividends for shareholders ,as well as decreased investment.Decreased investment in capital costs in the long-run. may lead to falling dynamic efficiency and risks,which may lead to losses in the future if prices continue to fall and they may be forced to shut down,if prices are less than their average costs(P<AVC)


However,monopsony food suppliers,e.g unilever,can act as a counter weight to monopsony power as their control of key brands in supermarket sales can allow them to negotiate more strongly with the supermarkets,so their revenue won’t fall as significantly and neither will profits.This is why the number of food suppliers struggling financially has increased 50%.

By supermarkets having lower costs due to purchasing at lower prices from suppliers,they are able to decrease price for consumers.This is because the supermarkets are highly interdependent,which has resulted in a price war.This will lead to falling prices for consumers by 1.1% and therefore an increase in consumer surplus.However as food suppliers are facing falling profits and may be less innovation in terms of flavour.The quantity supplied by the food suppliers has also fallen from Q to Q1,which may lead to shortages.

In order to reduce costs in the long-run,food suppliers could reduce the size of their products,e.g.smaller quantities in jars,in order to reduce costs and improve profit margins,but this will lead to a fall in the quantity of goods for consumers and falling consumer welfare.




学诚国际教育A-Level圣诞集训班重磅来袭! 爱德思Alevel/IGCSE2022年1月考试时间汇总!备考A*如何规划? 2022年AP报名开启!中国大陆、韩国、新加坡发布报考流程~